Cross

Created by Constantino Manzana, an artist specialising in wrought iron and metals, this monumental cross is located in the centre of the square, set amidst a small pond, surrounded by gardens. The work is anchored on a base of stones, which supports a highly decorated column, wrapped around which is the figure of an enormous dragon, the symbol of evil and which, according to some, the author identified with Manuel Azaña, who was President of the Government at that time. On top of the column majestically stands a spectacular Baroque style cross. At the centre of the cross, on one side there is the face of Christ, dying, whilst the other side contains symbols of the passion. The works of Constantino Manzana are always highly decorative with hints of Catalan Modernism, probably acquired during his period of training in Barcelona. A deeply religious man, with a very strong personality, he created this statue in protest against a Law established by Azaña, at the height of theSecond Republic in Spain. The government of Manuel Azaña conducted an anti-religious policy which led to conflicts with the Catholic Church, one of the most controversial laws being the withdrawal of religious symbols, including the Crucifix. This measure led to considerable protest in Navarre. The sculpture was initially installed in the gardens of the Pamplona Cathedral Cloisters, however the cathedral chapter requested it to be moved and the cross was finally located at its present site in the Plaza de la Cruz (square of the cross) in 1941.

José María Muruzábal